Tuesday, 17 October 2017

Drug Abuse: 9 Substances Nigerian Youths Get ‘High’ On Everyday



Drug abuse is the misuse , illegal consumption of drugs that are not legal or even when drugs are prescribed but used inappropriately such as taking overdose of the prescribed medications.

A few common examples include cocaine, heroin, marijuana (cannabis) and a host of others.

But see below some of the most commonly used, which can be purchased over the counter at Pharmacies.



1. Codeine 

Codeine is known as an opioid analgesic  used to manage pain and diarrhea . Codeine is known to be widely misused when consumed in large quantities as it has potential to prodeuce a high mood (Euphoria).

Cough syrups are a major source of codeine. These codeine abusers mainly students when large quantities are consumed are exposed to adverse hazards such as dependence, tolerance, sedation and euphoria. The codeine is purchased under false claims from phrmacies to cure cough related conditions.

They often swallow the content of a bottle of cough syrup in one go or mix it with alcohol..beware of those red plastic cups!!!

Abuse of codeine poses a risk of depression and death. The risk is increased with concurrent abuse of alcohol.Other adverse effects may include constipation following prolonged use, dizziness, vomiting, headaches and dry mouth just to mention a few.

Apart from Codeine , other abused or misused opioid analgesics  are include morphine, pentazocine (fortwin), tramadol and pethidine. Also, they tend to cause respiratory depression in large doses.



2. Oxycontin:

OxyContin is a branded formulation of the powerful opioid painkiller, oxycodone. It is prescribed to manage cases of moderate to severe pain.

However, many people abuse OxyContin in order to get high--a practice that can prove dangerous and even fatal. Misuse of the pills (for example, taking too many pills at once, or crushing them up to be snorted or injected) elicits more intense effects and increases the risk of complications.

American Society of Addiction Medicine (ASAM) states that people who abuse prescription painkillers are at risk for concurrent or eventual heroin due to the similar effects of the two drugs.

3. Percocets:

Percocet is prescribed for short-term relief of moderate to severe pain that is not typically chronic in nature (i.e., post-surgical pain, pain from a sustained injury, etc.). Like heroin and morphine, Percocet affects the brain and the central nervous system, changing the way the brain perceives pain.

When taken in large doses, Percocet can cause a "high" similar to heroin that is characterized by:


  • Euphoria.
  • Feelings of claim and relaxation.
  • Heightened pleasure.


Unfortunately, however, Percocet abuse can lead to the same dangerous problems of dependence and addiction as the illicit street drugs that share its origin.

Symthoms of overdose: nausea, pain in the upper stomach, itching, loss of appetite, dark urine, clay-colored stools, or jaundice (yellowing of the skin or eyes).

4. Valium:

Valium is a benzodiazepine prescribed by medical doctors and psychiatrists to treat anxiety and panic attacks. Historically, Valium has been a popular pharmaceutical agent--widely used for its muscle relaxant, anti-convulsant, and sedative properties.

Valium is a potential drug of abuse that can result in problems like physiological dependence, tolerance, and addiction when used for an extended period of time, at high doses, or for reasons other than prescribed.

5. Clonazepam:

Clonazepam is a prescription drug that belongs to a group of medications called benzodiazepines. Clonazepam is known also by the brand name Klonopin. It is the third most prescribed benzodiazepine in the US, behind alprazolam (Xanax) and lorazepam (Ativan). These medications have very similar properties, but vary in their speed of onset and duration of their effects.

Beyond its mental health applications, clonazepam is prescribed to treat spasticity and seizure disorders, as well to manage some symptoms of acute alcohol withdrawal. Clonazepam is sometimes used as an induction agent prior to the administration of anesthesia before a surgical procedure.

The medication works by regulating overexcitement or overstimulation in the brain. Many people abuse the drug for non-medical purposes to experience its sedating range of effects.

It is not advisable to use clonazepam if you have narrow-angle glaucoma or severe liver disease, or if you are allergic to Valium or a similar medicine.

6. Tramadol:

Tramadol (brand name: Ultram) is an opioid analgesic (painkiller). It is prescribed to treat moderate to moderately severe pain and is considered a safer alternative to other narcotic analgesics like hydrocodone (Vicodin, Lortab) and methadone.

Taken orally at high doses, tramadol can produce a euphoric high similar to another commonly abused opiate medication, oxycodone (OxyContin).


7. Tylenol 3

Tylenol 3, also known under the generic name acetaminophen, belongs to two classes of drugs: analgesics (pain relievers) and antipyretics (fever reducers). Acetaminophen works by raising the pain threshold a person feels – meaning it harder for a person to feel pain. It can also reduce fever by telling the heat-regulating center of the brain to lower the body’s temperature when it is too high.

It is the codeine in prescription Tylenol 3 that can create dependency when used improperly or without a prescription. Dosages should be monitored and prescriptions should be taken exactly as prescribed to avoid Tylenol 3 addiction. When abused, painkillers have the ability to create a calm, relaxed feeling that can increase with high doses. This makes Tylenol 3 and acetaminophen abuse extremely dangerous and can lead to dependency.

Symthoms for Overdose:

Fatal side effects can occur if you use tramadol with alcohol, or with other drugs that cause drowsiness or slow your breathing. Seizures (convulsions) have occurred in some people taking this medicine. Tramadol may be more likely to cause a seizure if you have a history of seizures or head injury, a metabolic disorder, or if you are taking certain medicines such as antidepressants, muscle relaxers, narcotic, or medicine for nausea and vomiting.
Acetaminophen:

An overdose of acetaminophen can damage one’s liver or cause death. Call your doctor at once if you have nausea, pain in your upper stomach, itching, loss of appetite, dark urine, clay-colored stools, or jaundice (yellowing of your skin or eyes).

8. Paracetamol:

The drug, paracetamol, is one of the most commonly used medications around the world. It is a drug you can obtain easily across the counter even in the most advanced nations of the world, and it is available in so many different formats. You can get it as a tablet; caplet; syrup; suppository; an injection or an infusion. It is also available as a component of drug compounds in combination medications.

Paracetamol is one of the most common causes of poisoning around the world. Damage to the liver is its most prominent injury in the acute phase when up to 12 grammes of acetaminophen is taken by an adult or more than 250 milligrammes per kilogramme body weight in children. It was to reduce the incidence of liver toxicity from paracetamol overdose that legislation was passed in 1998 in the United Kingdom to limit how many tablets an individual can obtain. It is 16 tablets over the counter and 32 in pharmacies where a prescription is required and such prescriptions can be traced.

It is not advisable to use more of this medication than is recommended. An overdose of paracetamol can cause serious harm. The maximum amount of paracetamol for adults is 1 gram (1000 mg) per dose and 4 grams (4000 mg) per day. Taking more paracetamol could cause damage to one’s liver. If one drinks more than three alcoholic beverages per day, more than 2 grams of paracetamol could be fatal.

9. Xanax:

Xanax is the trade name of the prescription medication alprazolam, and is in a category of drugs known as benzodiazepines. Typically, doctors prescribe Xanax to treat patients suffering from anxiety and panic disorders.

Xanax is especially addictive when misused (taken recreationally or other than as directed). Anyone can become addicted to Xanax. According to the U.S. National Library of Medicine, Xanax use can result in tolerance, addiction, and dependence if taken in large quantities or used for a prolonged period.

Even people who take the medication exactly as prescribed can become addicted to it without realizing it.

Symptoms and signs of Xanax abuse can be both physical and mental.

All the facts stated above are based on research and all information can be verified via Google.

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